• Java is a widely used, versatile, and powerful programming language known for its portability, simplicity, and extensive libraries. It has been a popular choice for developing a wide range of applications, from web and mobile applications to enterprise-level systems. In this explanation, we’ll explore the major features of the Java programming language and understand why it is so popular.
  • In 1990, Sun Microsystems Inc. started developing software for electronic devices. This project was called the Stealth Project (later known as Green Project). In 1991, Bill Joy, James Gosling, Mike Sheradin, and Patrick Naughton started working on this project. Gosling decided to use C++ to develop this project, but the main problem he faced is that C++ is platform dependent language and could not work on different electronic device processors. As a solution to this problem, Gosling started developing a new language that can be worked over different platforms, and this gave birth to the most popular, platform-independent language known as Oak. Yes, you read that right, Oak, this was the first name of Java. But, later it was changed to Java due to copyright issues (some other companies already registered with this name). But why “Java” though? Let’s see the story behind this name Java and its logo which is a coffee mug. See the image below.
  • On 23 January 1996, Java’s JDK 1.0 version was officially released by Sun Microsystems. This time the latest release of Java is JDK 17.0 (September 2021). Now Java is being used in Web applications, Windows applications, enterprise applications, mobile applications, etc. Every new version of Java comes with some new features.

Why is Java so Popular?

Java’s popularity can be attributed to several key factors

1.Platform Independence

Java applications can run on any platform with a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), making them highly portable.


Java’s strong typing and extensive error-checking during compilation help ensure robust and reliable code.


Java’s built-in security features, such as the sandboxing of applets, make it a secure choice for applications, especially in web environments.


Java’s object-oriented nature promotes modular and maintainable code.

5.Large Standard Library

Java provides a vast standard library (Java Standard Library or Java API) that simplifies development and reduces the need for writing custom code.

6.Community Support

A large and active developer community contributes to Java’s growth, resulting in numerous libraries, frameworks, and tools.

Why Use Java

Java is chosen for various reasons, including

1.Cross-Platform Compatibility

Java applications can run on Windows, macOS, Linux, and other platforms without modification, thanks to the JVM.


Java’s robustness and support for multi-threading make it suitable for both small and large-scale applications.


It’s widely used in enterprise-level applications, such as banking systems, e-commerce platforms, and customer relationship management (CRM) software.

4.Web Development

Java is used in web development through technologies like JavaServer Pages (JSP) and Servlets.

5.Android App Development

Android apps are predominantly written in Java, making it a significant language for mobile development.

6.Big Data and Cloud Computing

Java plays a crucial role in big data technologies like Hadoop and Spark and cloud computing platforms like AWS and Azure.

Top 8 Java Features You Must Know


  • Java was designed to be easy to learn and use.
  • It has a clean and straightforward syntax that minimizes common programming errors.
  • Features like automatic memory management (garbage collection) simplify memory handling.


  • Java is a pure object-oriented programming language.
  • It encourages the use of objects and classes, promoting modular and reusable code.

3.Platform Independent

  • Java’s “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA) principle allows code to run on any platform with a compatible JVM.
  • This is achieved through bytecode compilation, where Java source code is compiled into platform-independent bytecode.


  • Java’s platform independence makes it highly portable.
  • Bytecode can be executed on any platform with a JVM, reducing the need for platform-specific adjustments.


  • Java’s strong typing, compile-time checking, and exception handling contribute to code robustness.
  • It minimizes runtime errors, making applications more reliable.


  • Java’s security features include a security manager and a classloader.
  • Applets, which are Java applications run in web browsers, run in a restricted environment (sandbox), enhancing security.


  • Java is both compiled and interpreted.
  • The Java compiler converts source code into bytecode, which is then interpreted by the JVM at runtime.


  • Java supports multithreading, allowing concurrent execution of code.
  • This feature is crucial for developing responsive and efficient applications, especially in modern computing environments.


Java is a versatile and popular programming language known for its simplicity, platform independence, robustness, and security. Its object-oriented nature, extensive standard library, and active developer community make it a top choice for a wide range of applications, from web and mobile development to enterprise-level systems and big data solutions. Understanding Java’s key features is essential for developers looking to harness its power and versatility in their projects.


1.What is the “Write Once, Run Anywhere” principle in Java?

The “Write Once, Run Anywhere” (WORA) principle means that Java code can be written once and executed on any platform with a compatible Java Virtual Machine (JVM). This is achieved through bytecode compilation.

2.How does Java achieve platform independence?

Java achieves platform independence by compiling source code into bytecode, which is then executed by the JVM on various platforms. The JVM interprets the bytecode and handles platform-specific tasks, ensuring code portability.

3.What makes Java a robust programming language?

Java’s robustness is attributed to features like strong typing, compile-time checking, and exception handling. These features help minimize runtime errors and enhance the reliability of Java code.

4.How does Java ensure security in its applications?

Java provides security features like the security manager and classloader. Applets, for example, run in a restricted environment (sandbox) to prevent malicious actions. Additionally, Java’s memory management helps prevent common security vulnerabilities like buffer overflows.

5.What is the role of garbage collection in Java?

Garbage collection is a feature in Java that automatically manages memory by reclaiming memory occupied by objects that are no longer in use. It helps prevent memory leaks and simplifies memory management for developers.

Categorized in: